We use local ingredients where possible. All our fixed oils come from England: camelina and borage oil from Essex, poppy seed oil from Lincolnshire and hemp seed oil from Oxfordshire.

We use also locally-grown and distilled essential oils: blue chamomile, Roman chamomile, lavender, peppermint and rosemary.

You can find some information here about our ingredients.

Where do they come from?

What are their properties?

Fixed vegetable oils Essential oils
Camelina seed oil
Poppy seed oil
Borage oil
Hemp seed oil
Rosemary essential oil
Blue chamomile essential oil
Roman chamomile essential oil
Peppermint essential oil
Lavender essential oil

  1. Fixed oils

Fixed oils are oils usually obtained from plant seeds, and are made by cold-pressing, hot-pressing or extraction with solvents. All our fixed oils are cold-pressed, which keeps the maximum of vitamins and avoids the use of solvents like hexane.

These oils are rich in triglycerides, which are molecules formed of one glycerol and three fatty acids. Triglycerides are found in the human body, such as in fat cells, where their main function is the storage of energy. They can be also found in the skin where they contribute to normal skin functions such as the barrier function and the maintenance of healthy skin.

The fatty acids contained in the triglycerides are different depending on the type of fixed oil. Other compounds can also be present in lower quantities including phospholipids, sterols and tocopherols (including vitamin E), depending on the type of oil.

Because they are so similar to human triglycerides, fixed oils are very well tolerated by human skin and can be used at very high concentrations or even pure on the skin. As with any natural product, an allergic reaction cannot be ruled out but it is unlikely.

Please find below the description of the English fixed oils that we use in our products.

Camelina seed oil

Camelina sativa in flowers
Camelina sativa in flowers

Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually known in English as camelina, gold-of-pleasure or false flax. Camelina oil has been harvested in Europe for 3,000 years.

Over 50% of the fatty acids in cold-pressed camelina oil are polyunsaturated. It contains around 35% alpha-linolenic acid (omega 3), which can help improve the skin barrier,[1] and 20% linoleic acid (omega 6), both of which are essential fatty acids. That means that they can’t be produced by the human body and needs to be absorbed through food, a bit like vitamins.

Camelina oil is also very rich in natural antioxidants, such as tocopherols, making this highly-stable oil very resistant to oxidation and rancidity.

Camelina is grown in the Colchester area in Essex. Camelina seed oil can be found in our body oils and in our Pure Omega English Face Oil.

Poppy seed oil

White poppy flower
White poppy flower
Poppy heads and seeds

Poppy is a well-known flowering plant growing naturally in England. Our oil is obtained from white poppies grown in Lincolnshire.

Premium-quality seeds are used to obtain the oil by careful cold pressing and light refining, creating an oil of extremely high quality, freshness and stability in which essential nutrients such as Vitamin E are preserved.

Poppy seed oil is very rich in linoleic acid (around 70% is omega 6) and is fast-absorbing which makes it ideal for acne-prone and oily skin. It has been shown that acne patients have low levels of linoleic acid in their skin surface lipids[2] and that linoleic acid applied topically can decrease the size of microcomedones – the blocked pores that may lead to acne.[3]

Poppy seed oil can be found
in our English face and body oils.

Borage oil

Borage flower

Borage, also called starflower, is a beautiful purple flower. Borage is a bee friendly crop as it helps sustain a healthy bee population while also benefitting from a higher yield following pollination.

Our oil is obtained by pressing seeds from the Colchester area in Essex. The oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and particularly in gamma-linolenic fatty acid, an omega 6 fatty acid that seems to have anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat skin disorders including eczema (atopic dermatitis) and red, itchy rash on the scalp (seborrheic dermatitis). Some studies have shown it can help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles around the eyes.

Borage seed oil can be found in our Pure Omega English Face Oil.

Bee friendly

Hemp seed oil

Hemp seeds and hemp oil

Our hemp seed oil is made from local hemp grown by a non-profit co-operative in Oxfordshire, whose proceeds will be put towards developing sustainable and ethical enterprises such as ecological hemp housing.

Hemp plants grow vigorously and can capture more carbon-rich biomass during a season than any other plant in a temperate climate. All parts of the plants can be used to make oil, food and supplements or even paper, textiles or building materials.

The oil is a well-balanced source of unsaturated fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid (18%, omega 3), linoleic acid (52%, omega 6), and oleic acid (9%, omega 9) and is rich in vitamin E. It does not contain THC (the hallucinogenic compound found in marijuana). Thanks to its high amount of linoleic acid, hemp seed oil can be used to moisturise acne-prone skins and can help balance your skin.

Note: Please note that as demand exceeds production, at some time during the year the organic hemp seed oil might not be available from Oxfordshire. In this instance, we will use a hemp seed oil that’s made from seeds coming from Devon or Europe and that’s cold-pressed in Devon.

Our hemp seed oil can be found in the following products: Rosemary English Face Oil, Pure Omega Face Oil, Peppermint Lip Balm, Peppermint Lip Balm Ingredients Kit, Fresh Feet Butter.

2.      Essential oils

Essential oils are obtained by pressing, distilling or extracting parts of plants such as flowers, leaves and roots. They are responsible for the smell or taste of the plant and so are often used in perfumery. Some also have some therapeutic properties.

Our essential oils come mainly from Norfolk or Suffolk — blue chamomile, Roman chamomile, lavender, peppermint and rosemary.

We use also blood orange essential oil from Sicily. Most orange essential oil comes from Brazil, so this source is much closer to the UK.

Rosemary essential oil

fresh rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Fresh rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.

The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the flowering tops and leaves. Rosemary essential oil is well known for its antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.[4]

Research has also shown that it has some effect on musculoskeletal pain.[5] Rosemary is also used as a stimulant for the scalp, encouraging hair growth and providing treatment for dandruff and greasy hair.[6]

Some studies have shown that rosemary essential oil has antibacterial properties, particularly against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which is the bacteria found in acne.[7]

Rosemary essential oil can be found in our Rosemary English Face Oil and in our Muscle Relief English Body Oil.

Blue chamomile essential oil

A bottle of chamomile essential oil
Blue chamomille oil

Blue chamomile essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the dried flower heads of blue chamomile, also called German chamomile or Matricaria recutita.

It is a deep blue oil and has a sweet herbaceous smell with a slightly fruity undertone. Its blue colour is due to the presence of a compound called chamazulene, a powerful anti-inflammatory agent, which has a long history of being used to treat skin problems. Blue chamomile also contains a second anti-inflammatory compound called alpha-bisabolol.

Blue chamomile has antibacterial properties and is renowned for its soothing properties. It is especially useful for dry, problem and irritated skin. Blue chamomile essential oil is also very effective for everyday aches and pains.[8]

This essential oil is extensively used in cosmetics and shouldn’t be confused with Roman chamomile, which is similar but has slightly different properties.

Blue chamomile essential oil can be found in our Muscle Relief English Body Oil.

Roman chamomile essential oil

Roman chamomile
Roman chamomile

Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile or Anthemis nobilis) is commonly known as English chamomile or garden chamomile. Its essential oil is colourless to pale blue, turning yellow with storage.

It’s used in cosmetics and aromatherapy for its anxiolytic properties[9] — relieving stress and depression. It’s extensively used in aromatherapy to ease headaches and insomnia and to relieve pain from menstrual cramps, as well as decreasing pain from arthritis, sprains and stings.[10] Psoriasis, eczema, boils, sunburn and cold sores can also be treated with Roman chamomile.

Roman chamomile can be found in our Soothe & Relax English Body Oil.

Peppermint essential oil

peppermint leaves
Peppermint leaves

Peppermint is a herb commonly used in cookery or to flavour drinks. We use the variety called Mentha piperita.

The benefits of peppermint essential oil are mainly due to menthol, which is usually present at a level of 44%. Applied on the skin, it has a cooling effect and may have some analgesic (against pain) properties to relieve pain spasms and arthritic problems.[11] It is also noted for its anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious and fungicidal effects – studies have shown an in-vitro activity against 22 species of bacteria,[12] as well as against the virus responsible for cold sores.[13] It can be used by inhalation as a decongestant. Peppermint essential oil is found in the following products: Muscle Relief English Body Oil, Peppermint Lip Balm and Peppermint Lip Balm Ingredients Kit and Fresh Feet Butter

Lavender essential oil

Lavender flowers

Lavender oil is probably one of the most-used essential oils. There are many varieties of lavender, but we use English lavender or lavendula angustifolia, grown and distilled in East Anglia.

English lavender contains linalool and linalyl acetate, which can be absorbed through the skin during massage and are thought to have a relaxing effect[14]. Lavender is often used in pillows for people with anxiety and sleeping problems.

Some studies have also shown some antibacterial and antifungal[15] properties against many species of bacteria[16]. Lavender may help with painful muscles, and it is also used for healing and skin problems, even though there isn’t strong evidence of this effect.

You can find lavender essential oil in our Soothe & Relax English Body Oil and Muscle Relief English Body Oil.

[1] Harding, C. R. et al. Dry skin, moisturization and corneodesmolysis. International journal of cosmetic science 22.1, 21-52 (2000)

[2] Downing DT et al., Essential fatty acids and acne, J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986 Feb;14(2 Pt 1):221-5.

[3] Letawe et al., Digital image analysis of the effect of topically applied linoleic acid on acne microcomedones, Clinical and experimental dermatology, vol.23, issue 2, March 1998, pp. 56-58.

[4]Wang W, Wu N, Zu YG, Fu YJ: Antioxidative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to its main components. Food Chem. 2008, 108:1019–1022.

[5] Keshavarzian S. and Shahgholian N.: Comparison of the Effect of Topical Application of Rosemary and Menthol for Musculoskeletal Pain in Hemodialysis Patients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2017 Nov-Dec; 22(6): 436–441.

[6] al-Sereiti MR, Abu-Amer KM, Sen P. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials. Indian J Exp Biol 1999; 37: 124-30.

[7] Fu Y. et al.: Investigation of Antibacterial Activity of Rosemary Essential Oil against Propionibacterium acnes with Atomic Force Microscopy, Planta Medica · Nov 2007, 73(12):1275-80.

[8] Ali B. et al.: Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(8): 601–611.

[9] Srivastava JK et al. Chamomile: a herbal medicine of the past with bright future. Mol Med Rep 2010; 3(6): 895-901.  

[10] Lawless J. The illustrated encyclopaedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of oils in aromatherapy & herbalism. Rockport: Element Books Ltd; 1995.

[11] Shah P.P. et al., A review of Medicinal uses and Pharmacological effects of Mentha Piperita. Natural Product Radiance 2004, Jul-Aug., Vol 3(4), 214-221.

[12] Pattnaik S et al., Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro. Microbios. 1996;86(349):237-46.

[13] Schuhmacher A et al., Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):504-10.

[14] Koulivand PH, Ghadiri MK, Gorji A. Lavender and the nervous system. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/681304.

[15] Behmanesh F. et al., Antifungal Effect of Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and Clotrimazole on Candida albicans: An In Vitro Study. Scientifica (Cairo). 2015; 2015: 261397.

[16] Sienkiewicz Met al., Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils. Med Chem. 2011 Nov;7(6):674-89.